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Tackling an ecological or environmental science fair project is a good idea for students who want their projects to mean something. These projects, particularly ones that relate to local ecological problems, help to teach students about issues that impact their quality of life and they allow students to make a contribution towards solving the problem. One issue that impacts most local ecosystems is water pollution.
In this free sample science fair project the treatment of water pollution is examined. In order to come up with a hypothesis background research was required on different ways to treat polluted water. After conducting this research two methodologies for treating water pollution were selected. The hypothesis that resulted is, “Natural enzymes are more effective at treating water pollution then simple settling pond treatment options.”
In this hypothesis the variable that will be measured will be the cleanliness of the treated water and the manipulated variable will be the treatment type.
The control experiment for this science fair project will be focused on testing the effectiveness of a settling pond treatment methodology to clean polluted water. In this situation polluted water will refer to sewage water. The experiment will be set up to replicate what happens in a settling pond treatment plant. A student can use an inflatable swimming pool to replicate a settling pond. Sewage water can then be harvested and treated following what is normally done at a settling pond treatment plant.
If this is not possible, then the student can work with a local treatment plant to take samples of pre-treated sewage water and samples of treated sewage water.
The test experiment is going to focus on water pollution treatment methodologies that utilize enzymes as the cleaning agent. For this experiment the same amount of polluted water will need to be treated using the enzymes.
Collecting data for this science fair project will require extra care, particularly when handling sewage water. Latex gloves, goggles, aprons and possibly even rubber boots will be needed.
Samples will be taken from pre-treated water and from treated water in both experiments. Each sample will then be tested under a microscope. Particle counts and microbe counts will be taken. Other tests can be run that involve using litmus test strips or dye reactor tests. This supplemental data can add to the value of your science fair project.
The analysis of the data will start by organizing all of the findings in a table. This will make extracting statistics like mode, median and mean from the data much easier to do. Students will then need to determine the improvement rates for each treatment method and the after the fact particle suspension rates and microbe counts for each test. These results can then be compared to see which method is more effective at cleaning polluted sewage water.
The conclusions that are drawn need to be backed up with both data collected by the student and by research findings drawn by other scientists. The student will also need to evaluate the validity of their data by examining the design of their experiment and determining if it had any flaws. Finally the student will need to make suggestions about what additional research needs to be conducted, such as comparing enzyme water treatment practices to charcoal filtration treatment practices.
If it happens to be that you search the web for information about how to save water and electricity costs then let us share some information with you – i am sure you will be amazed. What if i told you that you can produce plenty of clean, green energy for everyone in your entire household, single handedly and at very little cost – how can this be? Just read the information that follows and you’ll realize what is possible.
The situation is that people generally obtain their power from the electric company; they then pay their monthly bills and at the same time watch their bank account decreasing for something like electricity. On the other hand, there are people who decided that enough is enough, they didn’t want to be saddled with all those bills – they learned about a way to make their own electricity – for free – for the rest of their lives.
Before you get more information about how to save water and electricity costs be aware of the fact that these resources are available to anyone, including you; you will be able to enjoy the many benefits of your free electricity in a matter of days – don’t you want to join the free energy club? I guess that by now you are already full of curiosity as to what this all entails; it happens to be a simple matter of taking existing natural sources of energy and creating limitless free electricity from them. Can you believe that it’s both possible and easy for people to build their very own solar and/or wind energy system in a matter of days without leaving their home?
Although you might only care at the moment about how to save water and electricity costs hopefully you now realize how easy it is to build a system to harness the power of the sun and wind that can drop down your electric bills down to per month. This might sound like a very difficult and very costly process; well, it used to be that way, but not anymore – fortunately for all of us, a well-respected expert in the highly specialized field of renewable energy discovered a way to make this accessible to anyone.
The moment you turn on the TV, flip through a magazine, or take a look at the newspaper, you find advertisements with terms like water purifier, water purification process, reverse osmosis, distillation, filtration, and so on. A lot of people have no idea what these terms actually mean and they buy water filters randomly. But a water filter is not meant to be bought that way. You need to understand the concept of purifying water and you need to buy the best product in order to stay away from waterborne diseases.
First, let me explain water purification. The water distributed through public system has lots of contaminants. Some of them are less dangerous and some of them are more dangerous. But all of them are harmful for your health. So, you need to purify the water you drink. In order to do so, you need to get a water purifier. Each water purifier has its own method to purify water.
In order to explain water purification further, I need to tell you about the different methods of water purification. There are three methods which are very popular these days – reverse osmosis, point of use filtration, and active carbon block filtration.
The water purification process behind an RO unit is simple. It has a semi permeable membrane and a fine porous structure. Water is passed through these layers under pressure and the unit blocks any substance which is larger than water molecule. However, there are two major disadvantages with this method. First, herbicides, which are smaller than water molecules, pass through this filter easily. Second, this method tends to destroy the essential minerals present in water that are good for your health. The bottom line – the water you get is neither pure nor healthy.
The water purification process behind point of use distillation is a little complex. Water is first passed through a very hot coil and it becomes water vapor. Then, it is passed through a cooling chamber where it becomes water again. In this process, the inorganic contaminants present in water are removed. However, the organic contaminants still remain and like RO, this method tends to destroy the essential minerals present in water too.
The third, and perhaps the best method, is active carbon block filtration. The reason why it is considered the best is very simple. Unlike RO and filtration, it destroys the contaminants present in water completely. Also, it retains the essential minerals present in water.
Doctors around the world explain water purification in two points. First, the contaminants present in water should be removed entirely and second, the essential minerals present in water should not be removed. Going by this rule, active carbon filtration is the only method which can be considered effective.
So people, there you have the opinion of the experts. Remember, a water filter unit is only as good as the water purification process behind it. So, make sure you buy the right one and enjoy the goodness of pure water.
If you have a tankless water heater then you probably already know that it takes longer to get hot water with a tankless water heater than with an old fashioned storage tank type water heater. While you wait for the hot water to arrive, you are running water down the drain. What a shame to have to waste water to save energy. But there is something you can do to change the situation.
There are hot water pumps designed specifically to get you your hot water faster, and they eliminate running water down the drain while you are waiting. These pumps or pumping systems are called “Demand “hot water systems. There are several manufactures of such systems.
Let’s take a minute and examine the reasons for the lengthy delay in obtaining hot water at the fixtures. Back in the old days, when there were no low flow fixtures, you could get your hot water pretty fast, but you still used just as much water. When you have a faucet that spews out 6 gallons a minute your wait is pretty small. For example, a ½” diameter pipe 63 feet long holds a gallon of water. So if your fixture allows water to flow at 5 gallons per minute, it would take only 12 seconds for the water to flow through the 63 feet of pipe. If you have a low flow faucet at the sink which only allows a maximum of 1 gallon per minute, it will take 60 seconds for the water to reach the fixture. Quite a difference.
But wait, there is more. Since the pipe material is cold, (unless you recently used hot water), it will absorb heat from the water as it flows to the sink until the pipe warms up to the temperature of the water. The colder the pipe the longer it takes to get hot water to the sink.
Tankless water heaters don’t have a tank full of hot water waiting to be piped to the fixture at a moments notice…first you have to heat the water. A tankless water heater is like a coil of pipe with a burner under it. In order for the water to get hot it must stay in the flames for a certain period of time. When you turn on your hot water the water in the middle of that coiled up pipe won’t be in the flames long enough to get hot. The water needs to travel through the entire coil pipe to reach full temperature. So add the time it takes for the water to travel through the coiled up pipe in the tankless water heater.
So what do we do about it? We can pump the water in a loop from the outlet of the heater through the hot water piping and cold water piping back to the water heater inlet. If we turn the pump off just before the hot water reaches the fixture we won’t get hot water into the cold water piping and our hot water arrives much more quickly. And as an added bonus no water gets run down the drain at all. It turns your hot water system green!
These demand hot water systems put a small pump at the furthest fixture from your water heater and connect them between the hot and cold water lines. There is a temperature sensing element in the pump that shuts the pump off when an increase in temperature is detected. This prevents hot water from getting in the cold water line. You do need a power outlet under the sink to plug the pump into.
Now when you want hot water you just push a button, and the pump takes over delivering hot water to the fixture fast without wastefully running water down the drain. Most manufacturers also have remote control accessories to activate the pump from other sinks that may benefit from the same pump, and even to activate it by detecting motion etc.
There are a number of systems that will work with tankless water heaters, but not all do. Standard circulating systems will not work, it must be a “demand” system, otherwise it will void the warranty. Even some demand systems won’t work unless they have a pump powerful enough to activate the tankless water heater. Tankless heaters need a minimum flow rate to turn on and stay on.
Hot water demand systems range in price from about 0.00 to over 0.00. Studies have shown that a typical family of four can save over 10,000 gallons of water per year. Needless to say, by not using all of that extra water you help reduce the energy required for pumping and treating the water before it gets to your home, and after it’s send down the sewer. Reduced energy usage means reduced amounts of green house gases being released into the atmosphere.
If you have a tankless water heater think about helping preserve our planet and reducing your carbon footprint with a demand type hot water delivery system.
The water is a simple chemical compound, but with complex properties because of its bias. The chemical formula of water is H2O. That is, each water molecule consists of one oxygen atom between two hydrogen atoms. Water is indispensable for human health and well-being; there can be no life on Earth without water. In fact, the human body is composed of 70% water. However, that same water can do harm to your body if not purified. Unfiltered water contains chlorine, fluoride, dioxins, parasites, etc. those could be hazardous to your health.
Why water treatment is so important?
The water is found almost everywhere on Earth. Water resources like rivers, lakes, which provide water contain a lot of pollution, garbage unfit for consumption. To be clean, the water should undergo a number of treatments necessary to make it drinkable. Water purifiers designed to eliminate or reduce certain pollutants (nitrates, pesticides, heavy metals, organic materials…), as well as improve the quality taste of water (eliminating chlorine).
If you are like one of most people out there, you may say “I have been drinking unfiltered water for years, I never am sick”. Some diseases take time to present visible signs, but it does not mean they are inactive in your organism. WHO list a list of WATERBORNE DISEASES that kill people all over the world: diarrheal disease, Hepatitis A, Cholera, Botulism, Typhoid, Dysentery, Cryptosporidiosis, Polio, etc. those diseases can be caused by protozoa, viruses, bacteria, and intestinal parasites
Different methods of purification
Below, are three main techniques of water treatment used in the United State:
Distillation – distillation is the process of heating the water until it boils, capturing and cooling the resultant hot vapors, and collecting the condensed vapors. The impurities will “accompany” the steam and end up in distillate. This method is not new; mankind has been applying distillation for thousands of years. Not all modern distillation equipments are the same. If you are interested in treating your water by distillation, you should choose good or advanced water purifiers for better result. The problem with the method of distillation is kind of slow comparably to reverse osmosis and UV water treatment method.
Reverse Osmosis – The tap water passes through a semi-permeable membrane that ranges from 90 to 99% of components originally present. This practice originally designed for industrial uses is becoming very popular today in domestic water purification. In practice, a portion of the water allows the rejection of impurities selected initially by the membrane, polyamide TFC. Very powerful, it is nevertheless sensitive to chlorine and must be protected with active carbon filters. Its life is about 5 to 8 years under normal conditions of use. This principle is also quite slow and requires a substantial pressure.
UV water purification - UV water purification technology is probably the most cost-effective and most efficient on the market today. It allows homeowners and business owners to remove a range of biological contaminants in their water supply. The UV water treatment offers many advantages over other forms of water treatment for microbiological contaminants. Most importantly, it leaves no chemical in water, it produces no by-product, and it does not change the taste, pH, or other properties of water. Consequently, in addition to producing safe drinking water, it is not harmful to your plumbing and septic system.
The UV treatment is an excellent choice for eliminating biological contamination of most waters. If your home or business requires an additional gutter screens or if you have a source of private untreated water (rainwater, lake water, wells etc.). The unique objective of UV water treatment system is to kill harmful biological contaminants.
In any method (reverse osmosis, UV water treatment, distillation), it is imperative to change the filters regularly. Poorly maintained, activated carbon filters may prove ineffective. Worse, they can suddenly reject the impurities previously removed from the water.
We, at vital food store, offer you and your family a quality of water that nature has provided to only a select few. By using natural purification processes in combination with advanced technology, our water treatment systems produce what many believe is the best drinking water on Earth. Visit our water treatment system” target=”_self” title=”water treatment system”>water treatment system store.
In time, societies progress and as things change, procedures that pertain to our survival also change. Because water is simply vital to our existence, ways of effectively gathering and recycling water has been developed through the years. Continually developing from the past to the present is the technology of waste water management.
Compared to those used in ancient times by our forefathers, we have more efficient waste water management systems nowadays. However, it is undeniable that what they did in the past truly helped have a better understanding of effective systems. This article will allow you to be in the know when it comes to the basics of modern waste water management.
Waste water contains harmful contaminants and waste water management or sewage treatment pertains to how waste water is treated and cleaned. We have waste water because we use water daily. It is waste water that originates from household sewage and industrial operators.
When it comes to waste water management, it is done for the sake of sanitation and public health. When it comes to diseases like cholera and typhoid fever, contaminated water is mostly to blame. The main purpose of waste water management is to protect our sources of water since it is an invaluable resource apart from the general health of the society.
As of today, our sources for water are rather limited and so we have to save as much of it as we could. As predicted by the United Nations World Water development report back in 2003, the next 20 years will experience a 30 to 40% decrease when it comes to the global water supply. When it comes to these frightening statistics, the need to have effective waste water management procedures becomes more essential.
How do systems for waste water management work? Expect some alterations depending on the location of the treatment facility but in essence four fundamental stages are involved. The first one is the pre-treatment process.
Basically, this is where the water is strained, screened, and analyzed. Debris like stones, branches, and leaves should be removed from the home Considering that the waste water came from an industrial factory, the grease and lubricants they used will be combined with the waste water and this is what the pre=treatment process cleans up.
After analyzing the waste water that has gone through pre-treatment process, actual primary treatment will take place. The sediments from the waste water will sink at the bottom of primary clarifier tanks while the grease and oils it contains will float. Chemicals will be introduced after the sediments at the bottom and the floating grease are removed and this is because the water will still contain bacteria.
When it comes to waste water management, the third step focuses on making sure that the water is now safe enough to be released into designated grounds and other natural bodies of water. During the third stage, the harmful microorganisms in the waste water are removed as chemicals are introduced. Disinfection is what the fourth stage of waste water management is.
Usually, chlorine is used as a disinfectant to produce clean potable water. With the dawn of various environmental issues, our researchers and scientists are still hard at work looking for more effective ways of waste water management. Dealing with water can be done with greener and more practical methods and this is what people want despite how effective our current system already is.
The source of water supply to a building depends on many factors, such as, location restrictions, your specific preference and expense factors etc. The water supplies can be from metered municipal water system, from wells, tapped springs or rivers, or even from rainwater storage.
However, irrespective of whatever the water supply is, the connection to the home is always at a single point. When the water supply is through metered municipal water system, the entire domestic water cycle is formed outside the internal distribution system. On the other hand, in all other cases, the entire cycle must be formed independently. The later water supply systems are popular in homes that are further from cities or other populated areas, where they cannot be connected with a municipal system. In this form of water supply, the piping system consists of various taps, fixtures, and appliances, while the drainage exits through the sewage drain system. Let us examine how does the internal distribution system work.
Taps, Fixtures and Appliances
Taps, fixtures, and appliances are very important components of a water supply system. They all are used in some form of water falls. Taps are used as water outlets, and they do not accompany any fixture. Fixtures include toilet, water closet, sink, washbasin, bathtub etc.
Fixtures do not require any additional source of power to use water. Appliances are specific devices for specific purposes, and they require an additional source of power to perform their function. Appliances may include washing machine, dishwasher, icemaker etc. The connection to these appliances work on the concept of a back flow prevention principle. These principles may include either or both the mechanical and physical principles.
This way, they all have their own functions to perform, while they also produce some form of waste or sewage. The sewage drain system is used to remove such waste.
Supply System for Cold Water
Cold water supply is nothing but an external water supply. However, cold water supply system can also use filter, water softener appliances, or any other fixture. The connection for the cold water system is done in such a way that other appliances could receive it through fixtures and taps. Such appliances include sinks, hot water heaters, faucets, bathtubs, showers etc.
Supply System for Hot Water
There are certain appliances that can be used to provide hot water, such as water heaters. Cold water supply system supplies a volume of water to such appliances, where they heat the water and provide hot water.
The hot water thus produced is then fed to various fixtures and taps so that the appliances that require hot water could receive it. The appliances that may require hot water include washing machine, sinks, bathtubs, showers etc.
Waste Water Drain System
The wastewater drain system is used to dispose the wastewater produced by various appliances. In this process, the wastewater is transferred through sewage drain system to the sewage removal system.
Wastewater drain system use piping of a larger diameter and some water traps. Moreover, this system is designed and installed in such a way that the toxic gases and other odors could be prevented from entering the living place.
Hence, here we see which components a water supply system uses and how do they work as a system.
Being concerned about the water filter is indeed a prudent step to ensure better health. Especially in dry regions of Australia we understand requirement of the water filters. Water filtering can be done even by boiling the water and storing it in a proper apparatus but for regular use this is a next to impossible process. As there are several Australia water filter manufacturers, we can make smart choice to buy a suitable one. Bottled water coolers have been popular and clean waters were kept connected with the dispensers. This was indeed a hectic process of storing water and now it is almost obsolete in every parts of Australia.
Australians now prefer water filtering systems that remain connected with the main water supply and provide fresh water. Selection of the right water coolers or the water filters can be easy process when a little web based research is initiated. Now the best water filter manufacturers offer their products online and just obtaining them is not at all a problem. The payment gateway remains secured and just with the help of credit card the water filters can be purchased. Still, it is indeed to make a close comparison between the different available water coolers to grab the best one.
It is a fact that water supplying authorities across Australia maintain a certain safety standard to ensure that they are supplying pure water; still it is advisable to filter the water before drinking. This is wise for both commercial and domestic places. Offices are now setting up water filtering systems to provide clean and fresh water for the employees. Actually to meet certain standards of offering safe workplace, companies are remaining adherent to the norms. To attain quality certifications, corporations need to pass through a check and the inspectors indeed check the workplace safety and workplace conditions.
It is commonly observed that within tough hours of work, often people come to the water filters and drink a fresh glass of water to refresh them. This not only refreshes but it also help an employee to put up concentration to work better. Finally, the company is getting benefited with better and productive inputs from the employee. So, installing water filters can be beneficial for both the company and the employees. Many companies used bottle water filters but now they are changing to mains fed water filters. Actually the mains fed water filters do not need much maintenance but in case of bottled water filter someone needs to change the bottled water every day.
There are different companies that offer spring water or fresh purified water in Australia. Selection of the suitable one is the major task. The water filters that offer reverse osmosis facility besides cleaning the germs are highly advisable. All leading manufacturers offer coolers that come with reverse osmosis facility. Reverse osmosis is an interesting process, where the minerals helpful for human body are allowed to percolate through during the filtration process. So, we can conclude that water filtering is not difficult when the proper research is done. In this era of online communication web based research is the best way to find out the suitable water filtering systems.
Water Savers are devices which are used to save water in Industry or household to cut down water utility bill and conserve water to be environment friendly. Water Saver devices include filters, devices to fill less water into the cistern tank and devices to help in conservation of rain water.
How to Save Water Using Water Savers
Toilet Cistern Tank – You may save Water by using a Device to fill less water in a toilet cistern tank so that less water will be used to flush the toilet.
Check Leakage of Cistern: You may check the leakage of cistern by adding some color in the cistern tank, if the toilet becomes colored within half an hour it means your cistern is leaking. Get it replaced or repaired as the replacement parts are very cheap.
Rain Water Harvesting – Conserve rain water in a storage tank which can be used later to water your plants when it is not raining and for other household purposes like cleaning dishes etc.
Insulate your Water Pipes – There are several types of insulators available which will prevent the heat loss in your hot pipes. So you will get hot water faster and you will not waste it for being less hot.
Water filters – Installing Filters is another method of saving equipments as you will develop a habit of using filtered water which will be stored in a small water tank restricting you to use less water.
Drinking Water: Store drinking water in a refrigerator rather than using tap every time which may result in wastage.
Instant Water Heater – An instant water heater installed in your kitchen or bathroom will be a water saver for you. By installing it you will not need to drain out cold water out of the pipe every time you need hot water. It will instantly heat up only the required quantity of water for you.
Repairing Leakages – Repair the leakages of pipes with several water savers seals available in the market and repair dripping taps by replacing washers.
Earth is made up of 75% water but only 3% water is consumable, thus saving water becomes necessary for the welfare of our future generations. The water savers devices and tips mentioned above will go a long way in helping conserve our natural resource.